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Le gallerie della rete ferroviaria italiana e l’applicazione dei moderni criteri della progettazione della sicurezza

Firmi P.
Articolo Immagine
ISSN:
0393-1641
Rivista:
Gallerie e grandi opere sotterranee
Anno:
2012
Numero:
104
Fascicolo:
Gallerie e grandi opere sotterranee N.104/2012

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Uno dei temi maggiormente discussi e approfonditi negli ultimi anni nell’ambito della progettazione e gestione delle gallerie ferroviarie, è la sicurezza rispetto ad alcuni scenari incidentali tipici (collisioni, deragliamenti, incendi). Il tema è stato oggetto di crescente attenzione da parte degli operatori del settore a causa di alcuni gravi incidenti che si sono verificati nel campo delle infrastrutture viarie di trasporto. Tali eventi hanno fatto sì che si sviluppasse un’intensa attività normativa che, cominciata a metà degli anni 90, ancora oggi vede il proliferare, a distanza anche di poco tempo, di provvedimenti nazionali ed europei non sempre coerenti. Scopo della presente memoria è fornire una panoramica delle principali caratteristiche delle gallerie ferroviarie presenti sul territorio italiano, una sintesi sulle normative che nell’arco degli ultimi anni si sono susseguite in ambito nazionale e comunitario ed un’analisi delle ricadute che tali norme generano con particolare riferimento alle gallerie in esercizio. Per tali gallerie, vengono inoltre illustrate le principali problematiche tecniche riscontrate nell’applicazione delle misure di sicurezza maggiormente impattanti dal punto di vista realizzativo e/o manutentivo e/o gestionale, offrendo una panoramica sulle soluzioni individuate e sulle sperimentazioni in corso.

The existing network managed by RFI has an extent of ​​about 16550 km. Tunnels cover about 1550 km, thereby constituting the 8% of the entire railway infrastructure. In the overall railway framework, such tunnels do not represent a critical element for levels of accidents, which generally are significantly lower than those recorded in the remaining infrastructural network. Risk analysis recently carried out show that most of the existing tunnels are characterized, under current infrastructural, plant engineering and traffic conditions, by fully acceptable risk values. However, the recent occurrence of serious accidents on road transport infrastructure, has caused that in recent years, safety in railway tunnels (compared to typical accident scenarios such as collisions, derailments and fires) became one of the most discussed and studied in deep topics in the designing and management framework of railway tunnels. These events, in particular, has caused the development of an intense regulatory activity that, began in the mid 90’s, still sees the proliferation, even at a distance of a short time, of national and European measures, not always consistent. The current situation therefore requires a timely action, to be carried out by the competent Ministerial Departments, to harmonize the complex and intricate regulatory framework and correct those requirements that, characterized by ambiguities and inconsistencies, are still difficult to apply. With regard to this situation, it should be also noted that the development of standards and their subsequent application have stimulated and developed a wide-ranging debate on the technical aspects of detail, more and more characterized by its strong multidisciplinary aspects. Indeed safety in railway tunnels, in addition to requiring numerous civil works, mostly related to preparation of escape routes and access routes for emergency services, also makes use of all types of systems such as electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, telecommunications, command and control. Moreover, the solutions to adopt often must synthesize requirements, sometimes even conflicting, expressed by the two main sectors involved, both characterized by high standards of specialization: the railway sector and the urgent technical assistance sector, primarily manned by Fire Rescue Brigades. Works so far carried out to realize some safety predispositions have outlined realization, maintenance and management problems especially regarding the requirements related to “Fire Resistance of Structures”, “Sidewalks”, “Escape and Access Routes”, “Electrical Supply System”, “Emergency Telephonic and Sound Diffusion System”, “Systems to Interrupt Electrical Line”, “Communication Systems” and “Systems to access inside tunnels”. For these security measures, it has been necessary to carry out an intensive activity of definition and refinement of designing and constructive technical standards and, where necessary, to carry out special experiments, some of which are still in progress.